上海小学三年级英语语法总结

2015-10-30 07:15:00
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小学三年级英语语法

(一)情态动词can

can 在英语中有一个特殊的名字,叫做情态动词,表示“能够”, “会”, “能力”后面要跟着表示动作的动词。没有时态和人称的变化。表示不能做什么的时候,后面加上 not为 can not,或者缩写为can’t。问别人“能…吗?”要把can 放在句子前面,首字母要大写,句尾别忘加上问号。

例句:—I can swing .I can draw.

—She can jump.He can play .

—We can touch .They can run.

—I can’t sing.You can’t see.

—She can’t dance.He can’t hear a car.

—We can’t hear an aeroplane.

—Can you hear a dog?Can he hear a bus?

—Can Lucy write?Can you do it?

将下面各组词组成句子

1.________________________(an,aeroplane,hear,Lucy,can )

2. ____________________________ (not,he ,dance,can )

3.____________________________? (you,can ,see,what )

4.____________________________(can ,see ,not ,we ,you)

5._____________________________. (I ,can ,help ,you )

6._____________________________? (I,can ,do,what)

7._____________________________? (you ,can ,hear me)

8._____________________________? (you ,can ,dance) 

答案:1. Lucy can hear an aeroplane.   2. He can not /can’t dance.  

3. What can you see?                 4. We can not /can’t see you 

5. I can help you.                    6. What can I do?

7. Can you hear me?                  8. Can you dance?

 

(二)人称代词所属格

人称代词表

 

人称

主格

be动词及其否定形式

所有格,形容性物主代词

have/has及其否定形式

助动词及其否定形式

宾格

 

第一人称

I

am/am not

my

have/haven’t

do/don’t

me

第二人称

you

are/aren’t

your

have/haven’t

do/don’t

you

第三人称

he

is/isn’t

his

has/hasn’t

does/doesn’t

him

she

is/isn’t

her

has/hasn’t

does/doesn’t

her

it

is/isn’t

its

has/hasn’t

does/doesn’t

it

人名

人名

is/isn’t

人名’s

has/hasn’t

does/doesn’t

人名

 

第一人称

我们

we

are/aren’t

our

have/haven’t

do/don’t

us

第二人称

你们

you

are/aren’t

your

have/haven’t

do/don’t

you

第三人称

他们,她们,它们

they

are/aren’t

their

have/haven’t

do/don’t

them

注意:主格作主语,其中she指带代国家,it可指代天气时间等。

宾格作宾语,介词宾语,表语 。动词后面用人称宾格

形容词性物主代词作定语。

名词性物主代词作主语,宾语,介词宾语,表语 书信yours…

表示 ---- 的,这样的词我们也学习很多了,你能想出来吗?

记住这个小口诀就很容易了:我的 my ,你的your,他的 his、她的her. //它的是its; 我们的 our; 你们的是 your他们(它们,她们)的是their//这些人称代词形式称为人称代词所属格,也叫形容词性物主代词。通常用在名词前面表示所属关系。另外,表示某人的还可以用名词或人名+ ’s 来表示。如:

my kite; your book; his pen; her coat; its tail; our class;

their teachers; my brother’s; book; the cat’s ears; Mary’s mother

一.写出下列人称代词的所属格形式

I________you_________he______________She_________it____________
we_____________You_________they_________

二.用合适的人称代词填空

(1) This is Ben. This is _______bicycle.

(2) I am Kitty. ______ bag is blue

(3) She’s Alice.  That’s _____ umbrella.

(4) You are Mr Li. ______ car is black.

(5) Is this ______ hat?  Yes, it’s my hat.

(6) That’s my mother.  That’s _____ coat.

(7) Where’s ______ scarf?  Here you are.

(8) He’s Mr Wang. _____ gloves are new.

三.翻译下列词组

1. 你的名字 _____________  2.我们班___________

3. 他的小弟弟____________  4.我祖母___________

5. 它的尾巴 ______________  6.我的鞋____________

7. 她的围巾________________ 8.我的衬衫_________

9. 他们的老师______________ 10.玛丽的雨伞_________

四.用下列单词组句

1.___________________________ (my , is,name , Tom)

2.____________________________ (is, miss , Gao, , our,friend)

3.____________________________ (is what ,your number ,telephone)

4.____________________________? (mother , your ,a teacher , is)

5.____________________________? (who’s , cap , it , is)

答案:一. I(my)  you (your) he(his) she(her) it(its) We (our) you (your) they (their)

三. 1.your name 2.our class 3. his little brother 4.my grandmother 5.its tail 6.my shoes 7.her scarf 8.my shirt 9.their teacher 10. Mary’s umbrella

四. 1.My name is Tom. 2.Miss Gao is our friend 3.What’s your telephone number? 4.Is your mother a teacher? 5.Who’s cap is it?

 

(三)介词、连词和感叹词

1.介词:介词是一种虚词,不能单独使用,必须在介词后面加上个名词或代词使用,作句子成份。

介词后面的名词(或相当于名词的其它词)叫做介词的宾语。介词和介词宾语合称为介词短语。介词短语在句中可作壮语、定语或表语。

介词如: in 在…里面 on在…上面 under在…下面等。

in the classroom in the tree in the hall

on the road on the desk on the floor

under the table under the bed under the chair

2.连词:连词是用来连接词与词、短语与短语、句子与句子等的词叫连词。连词是一种虚词,在句子中不能单独作句子成分。连词分两类:一类叫等立连词,另一类叫从属连词。

(1). 等立连词是用来连接同等的词、词组和分句的。等立连词有许多

我们现在只学到了and和but,其他的以后学到再介绍。

如:A and B ; blue and white ;an apple and a banana; a car and a bus; Lucy and Ben ;  Ben and Kitty ;

This is a lorry and that’s a drill.

I like dolls and you like robots.

(2). 从属连词是用来引起从句的、从属连词又分为

1) 引起名词性从句的连接词,如:if ,that 等。

2)引起壮语从句的连接词,如:when , after ,befare等。以后会逐渐学到再介绍。

3.感叹词: 表示说话人的某种感情(惊讶,高兴,痛苦等)的词叫感叹词。感叹词后常用感叹号。常用的感叹词有:oh(表示惊奇或痛苦),ah(表示惊奇或满意),hello(常被用来打招呼相当于汉语的“喂!”),well(表示惊讶,无奈)

如:Hello.Are you Mary?

练习:翻译下列词组

1.在桌子上面                      2.在树下面

3.在椅子上面                      4.在盒子里面

5.在黑板上                        6.在书里

7.在脸上                         8.在公共汽车上

9.一只猫和一只狗.                 10.又小又胖

答案:1. on the desk 2. under the tree 3. on the desk 4. in the box

5. on the blackboard 6. in the book 7. on the face 8. on the bus      9. a cat and a dog 10. small and fat

(四) 单数句和复数句:

    口诀: 单数句子变,变化规则要记住。  
              名词代词要变化,am, is要变are。  
               this, that变成啥,these, those来替它。  
               he, she, it要变啥,全部变they不用怕。  
               I要变we莫落下,名词后面把s/es加。  
               名前冠词去掉它,其余成分原样加。

具体注意下面的六要素:
1.单数主格人称代词要变成相应的复数主格人称代词,即I→we you→you she, he, it→they。 如: She is a girl.→They are girls.
2. am, is要变为are。 如: I'm a student. →We are students.
3.不定冠词a, an要去掉。如: He is a boy. →They are boys.
4.普通单数名词要变为复数形式。如: It is a cat. →They are cats.
5.指示代词this, that要变为these, those。如: This is a book.→These are books.
6. man, woman作定语修饰可数名词时,要在 ""上与被修饰名词保持一致。但其他名词修饰名词表示 "性质"时,不作变化。如:
He is a man doctor.→They are men doctors.
This is an apple tree.→They are apple trees.

单复数相互转换,每空一词(含缩写)。

1. The woman is a nurse.(改为复数句)

The _________ _________ _________.

2. There are some old cars.(改为单数句)

There _________ _________ old _________.

3. He has a new book.(改为复数句)

_________ _________ new _________.

4. Are these your chicks ?(改为单数句)

_______ _______ your _______?

5. Is there a sheep in the playground?(改为复数句)

________ there ________ ________ in the playground?

(五)一般疑问句及特殊疑问句

句子基本是:简单陈述句,由简单陈述句转变成肯定句,否定句,疑问句。疑问句是用来提出问题。英语中有四种疑问句: 一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、选择疑问句和反意疑问句。我们现在已经接触到了前两种疑问句。后两种疑问句以后我们还会学到.

一.一般疑问句:

英语中要用 yes和no 来回答的疑问句叫一般疑问句。如:

1)Is it hot ? Yes, it is .\No, it isn’t.                   —— be动词引导

2)Is it a car ? Yes, it is .\No, it isn’t .                —— be动词引导

3)Is this your ruler ? Yes, it is .\No, it isn’t .          —— be动词引导

4)Do you like bananas ?                               —— 含实义动词

Yes, I like bananas. \ No, I don’t like bananas.

5)Can Ming hear a drill ?                              —含情态动词

Yes , Ming can hear a drill.\No,Ming can’t hear a drill.

陈述句(肯定句,否定句,一般疑问句)的转变规律:
1肯定句              2否定句                3. 一般疑问句及肯否定回答

1) 主语+be动词+….       1) 主语+be动词+not+….      1)be动词+主语+…?

Yes, 主语+be动词./

No, 主语+be动词+not.

I am a teacher.              I am  not a teacher.          Are you a teacher?

                                                       --Yes, I am./ No, I am not.

My mother is thin.          My mother is not /isn’t thin.    Is your mother thin?

                                                    --Yes, she is./ No, she isn’t.

They are  insects.           They are not/aren’t insects.      Are they insects?

--Yes. they are./ No, they aren’t.

2) 主语+情态动词can+… 2) 主语+情态动词can+ not+…2)情态动词can+主语+…?

Yes, 主语+情态动词can/

No,主语+情态动词can+ not
 He can jump.              He can  not/can’t   jump.       Can he jump?

                                                       --Yes,he can./ No, he can’t.

3) 主语+动词+….        3) 主语+助动词do/does+not    3) 助动词do/does+主语

+…. 动词原形                 +….动词原形?

                               Yes, 主语+助动词do/does.

                               No, 主语+助动词do/does+not.

  He likes to eat apples.       He doesn’t like to eat apples.     Does he like to eat apples?

                                                    Yes,he does./ No,he doesn’t.

  We like to eat apples.      We don’t like to eat apples.       Do you like to eat apples?

Yes,we do. /No,we don’t.
                                                            
 二. 祈使句:表示请求、命令、建议或劝告等的句子叫祈使句,主语you常省略。
1、肯定形式:一般以动词原形开头。 Open the door, please.
2、否定形式:在句首谓语动词前加Don't。 Don't be late for class.  

三 特殊疑问句(又叫wh-question)

用特殊疑问词来提出问题的疑问句叫作特殊疑问句。特殊疑问词一般要放在句首。常用的疑问词有what who ,which how 等这些词都以wh 开头(包括how)所以也叫作wh-question。特殊疑问句要求回答具体内容。不能用yes或no回答。结构:疑问词+一般疑问句。回答不能yes / no(或相当于yes / no)回答的问句。答句的句式同肯定句句式:如:

What can you see ? I can see a cat.

What can you hear ? I can hear a bus.

What can you do ? I can sing and dance.

What is it ?  It’s a panda.

What do you like ? I like playing football

How old are you ? I’m ten.

一.将下列句子变成一般疑问句

1 Mr Wang is thirsty __________________________?

2.The elephent’s ears are long __________________________?

3. We like birds _________________________?

4.Hello.You are his mother __________________________?

5.I can sing and dance. ___________________________?

二 将下列每组词各组成一句特殊疑问句

1.(you are how). _________________________?.

2.(old how Ben is)_________________________?

3.colour is what your shirt_________________________?

4.(can see what the on you desk ) ________________________?

5.(like what do you)_________________________? 

答案:一.1. Is Mr Wang thirsty? 2. Are the elephent’s ears long 3. Do you like birds? 4.Hello. Are you his mother? 5.Can you sing and dance?

二.1. How are you? 2.How old is Ben ? 3.What colour is your shirt? 4.What can you see on the desk? 5.What do you like?

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